Asʾsalāmu ʿalaykum sayyida Zahara,
Based off of what I have seen in your previous posts, the Shiʿa view on the Ṣaḥāba [RA], namely the ones closest to Rasūlu’Llah ﷺ, are degrading and erroneous, and far from rational. You must not have read the post on FLOODPLAINS entitled Succession, as it concisely elucidates the course of Islamic history in a response letter that the venerable Imām ʿAbd-Allah ibn al-ʿAlawī al-Ḥaddād [RA] wrote to a Zaydi Shiʿi imām in Yemen. The three groups of with you speak are discussed at length in that post. This is the view that my teacher, Imām Fakhruddin Owaisī, myself (lacking in knowledge yet willing to learn), and the majority of Muslims concur with…
Wa alaykumus salaam,
Your post centers mainly on two points:
- You think we are going against the Qadr of Allah(swt) by questioning the actions of the oppressive Caliphs.
- You cannot understand why the Shia criticize some of the supposedly close companions of the Prophet(sawa).
Insha’allah I will attempt to answer both.
On the Qadr of Allah(swt).
Firstly, everything we do begins with Allah(swt) and ends with Allah(swt) i.e as Muslims we seek to follow the orders of Allah(swt).
We follow the Noble Prophet Muhammad (sawa) because he was appointed by Allah as the Prophet and obedience to him is obligatory.
The Noble Prophet(sawa) appointed Imam Ali(as) as his successor during his lifetime by the command of Allah(swt). Hence we follow Imam Ali (as) after the Prophet (sawa).
The Prophet(sawa) emphasized on following the Ahlulbayt(as), the manaqib and the manzelah of the Ahlulbayt(as) have been mentioned in the Qur’an and Sahih Hadith and no one can surpass them.
Those who oppressed the Ahlulbayt(as) and usurped their rights were going against the command of Allah(swt) and hence we condemn them.
You do not realize that your understanding of the Qadr of Allah is flawed.
According to your logic, all the oppression on the members of the Household of the Prophet(sawa) was the will of Allah(swt). Hence it cannot be questioned. It seems that you believe in compulsion and an oppressive God! One who forces the human beings to perform deeds that are already decreed and bound to occur. So according to your beliefs, all the oppression happening in this world cannot be questioned. The Israeli oppression of the Palestinian people also cannot be questioned!
I seek refuge in Allah(swt) from such beliefs!
All goodness is from Allah(swt) and all evil is from ourselves. It is true that Allah(swt) allowed it to happen but that does not mean he was happy with it or those who committed those sins were right.
Don’t you understand that you are adopting the language of the Yazeedis? This is what Omar ibn Sa’ad- the Commander of Yazeed’s forces in Karbala said after he killed Imam Hussain(as);”It was an affair decreed from the heavens…” This was the excuse put forward by the abettors of these crimes that the causes and reasons for all their actions were solely in divine hands.
Obviously, all such talks are against religion and humanity.
In the school of the Ahlulbayt(as), we believe in the path of moderation(Amr bainal Amrain). Regarding human action, we do not subscribe to compulsion or freewill. The Imams(as) have said :”There is neither compulsion nor free will. Nay, it is a reality distinct from the two extremes.”
Ameerul Momineen Ali(as) was returning from the Battle of Siffeen when an old man intercepted him and asked,” O Ameerul Momineen ! Tell me, whether our going to Syria to fight Muawiya was due to the Qaza and Qadar of Allah?”
He replied,” Surely, you neither ascend a height nor descend into any valley except that it has Qaza and Qadar of Allah (in it).”
The old man asked, ”Then does it mean that we will not be rewarded for it?”(He was trying to imply compulsion from Ali(as)’s saying.)
Imam Ali(as) reprimanded him by saying ,
“Do you think that there is finality to every decree issued by Allah and every destiny is irreversible? If it is so, then divine rewards, punishments, imperatives, prohibitions and admonitions are totally null and void, and all His promises and warnings are set at naught. (In that case), there could be no condemnation for the sinner nor could there be any recommendation for the virtuous. Rather, the sinners would be more deserving of a just reward than the virtuous and the virtuous would be more deserving of punishment than the sinners. Such talk is of this kind is of those similar to idol-worshippers, enemies of the All-Compassionate, a gang belonging to Satan, fatalists and fire-worshippers (Majus) in this ummah - Muslim community. Allah, the Almighty, the Sublime, has imposed on us duties and obligations together with free will and power (to do anything we like) and has forbidden us (against evil) through admonitions, and has fixed great rewards for little deeds. Allah is not disobeyed (by man) because He (Allah) is dominated (by man); nor is He obeyed from compulsion; nor has He delegated all the will and power in such a way as to become powerless and will-less Himself; nor has He created the heavens, the earth and what is between them in vain; nor has He sent His prophets as messengers of good tidings and admonitions vainly. ‘And We did not create the heaven and the earth and what is between them in vain; that is the opinion of those who disbelieve; then woe to those who disbelieve on account of the fire.’ (Holy Qur’an 38:27).”
Then the old man recited these appropriate verses extempore:
“You are the Imam through whom we hope for forgiveness from the All-Compassionate on the Day of Salvation. You have made clear for us what we were confused about; May your Lord recompense your good by His Good!”
( Ref: Alamah Hili, Sharih Tajrid al-l’tiqad, p. 247.)
Thus the Imam (a.s.) clarified and explained man’s having liberty to acceptance or refusal and its relation with the acts of Allah, and being far above predestination through Allah’s will.
I know the words of our Imams (as) don’t mean anything to you but I’m just elucidating how different our beliefs are from yours because you don’t take knowledge from the Imams(as) and we do. We don’t believe in an oppressive God like you and you still have the audacity to call our beliefs spiritually carcinogenic!
On the Sahaba:
Shia Scholar Sharaf ad-Din al-Musawi says the following in this regard:
“Whoever researches our(the shia) view with regard to the sahaba will find it the most moderate of views. We neither go to extremes in this regard as the ghulat have done, labelling them all as apostates, nor do we go to extremes in accepting them as trusted authorities as most [Sunni] Muslims have done. Those who attribute their perfection, as well as those who go to the opposite extreme and label them as apostates, are all in the same box. Sunnis are of the view that anyone who heard or saw the Prophet is absolutely equitable. They support their view from the tradition saying, `… whoever traversed or walked on the earth from them without any exception.’ But as far as we are concerned, although we regard keeping company with the Prophet as a great honor, it, as is, does not render one infallible. Like all other men, the sahaba included equitable persons who are their scholars and greatest men, whereas some of them are hypocrites who committed crimes. The condition of some of them is unknown; so, we rely on the equitable ones among them and accept them as our masters in the life of this world as well as in the life to come.”
I quote Sayed Muhammad al-Tijani again:
“The Prophet’s companions included believers who perfected their conviction as well as those whose conviction was quite feeble. Among them were those whose hearts did not surrender to conviction. Among them were pious ascetics as well as reckless individuals who sought only their self-interests. Among them were gracious and equitable persons as well as mean oppressors. Some of them were the believers who upheld righteousness as well as sinning transgressors. They included scholars who implemented what they learned as well as ignorant ones who invented bid`as. Among them were sincere companions as well as hypocrites. Among them were those who violated their oaths, who strayed from the path, and who reneged.
Since the Holy Qur’an, the sacred Sunnah of the Prophet, and history stated all these facts and clearly explained them, the claim put forth by “Ahl al-Sunnah wal Jama`ah” that all the sahaba were fair and just becomes nonsense which has no face value whatsoever because it contradicts the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah. It contradicts history, reason, and conscience. It is nothing but fanaticism and a claim which cannot be proven, an illogical statement.
One who researches these matters may wonder about the mentality of “Ahl al-Sunnah wal Jama`ah,” one which contradicts reason, facts, and history. But when he reads about the roles the Umayyads played, and the methods the Abbasids employed, to firmly fix the foundations of this doctrine, I mean respecting all the sahaba and avoiding criticizing them or doubting their integrity, his amazement will then disappear. He will no longer have the least doubt that the latter deliberately prohibited anyone from criticizing the sahaba so that those Umayyads would not be criticized or discredited, and so that the horrible actions they committed against Islam, the Prophet of Islam, and the nation of Islam, would not be revealed.
Abu Sufyan, Mu`awiyah, Yazid, Amr ibn al-As, Marwan ibn al-Hakam, al-Mughirah ibn Shu`bah, and Bisr ibn Arta’ah were all sahabis who ruled the Muslims. How could they, then, not prohibit any criticism of the sahaba? How could they not fabricate about them false traditions that label each and every one of them as just and fair so that such virtues would include them, too, and so that nobody would dare to criticize them or discuss their actions?”
Noble Quran clearly describes the hypocrites. Numerous verses in the Noble Quran condemn their attempts to destroy the Muslim nation. In particular, there are two Surahs in the Noble Quran that refer to some of the companions as hypocrites: Surah 9 (al-Tawbah or The Repentance) and Surah 63 (al-Munafiqeen or The Hypocrites).
“And of the people of Medina are those who are bent on hypocrisy. You know them not, but we know them. Twice will we punish them, and then they will be cast into severe punishment” (9:101).
“They swear in Allah’s name that they did not speak [evil]. They have certainly spoken words of disbelief. They disbelieved after submitting. And they contemplated that which they could not attain” (9:74).
Even when praying behind the Prophet himself, whenever a trade caravan would enter Madina, these hypocrites would leave their position in the prayer row to watch the caravan, rather than listen to the sermon of the Prophet of Allah. The Quran states, “And when they see some merchandise, or some amusement, they disperse headlong to it, and leave you (Muhammad) standing (while delivering the Friday jum’ah congregational religious sermon). Say: that which Allah has is better than any amusement or merchandise, and Allah is the best of providers.”[Noble Quran, 62:11]
This is about the companions in general and as for the three sheikhs, I know your blind fanaticism will not let you see their flaws which are mentioned in your own books.
The first three Caliphs disobeyed the Prophet(sawa) during his life time and after his death.
Towards the end of the life of the Messenger of Allah, the Roman army was gathering on the border of the Islamic state, and the Prophet ordered all of his companions except for Imam Ali to leave Madina and to join the battalion of Usama ibn Zayd. Some of the prominent companions ( including Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman) refused to join. The Prophet ordered them again to go, but they still refused. The third time, when they gathered in his house on a Thursday, four days before he passed away, the Prophet opened his eyes and saw that his companions had gathered around his deathbed. The Prophet asked for a pen and paper to write his will but Umar refused to give it to him, saying, “Verily, pain has overwhelmed him. The book of Allah is enough for us.” Once the argument increased, the Prophet turned to them and said, “Go away from me. You should not argue in my presence.” [Ref:Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 4, 490, Hadith 1229; Sahih Muslim, Vol. 11, 89; Ibn Sa‘ad, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, 36; Misbah al-Munir, Vol. 6, 34]
Abdullah Ibn al-Abbas says, “Disaster struck when they did not allow the Prophet to write his will.” [Ref:Shahristani, al-Milal wal-Nihal, Vol. 1, 22].
Other historians narrate that on that day, Umar said, “Leave him (the Prophet) alone. He is hallucinating.” [Ref: Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-Khawass, Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Sirr al-‘Alamin, 21; Tarikh ibn al-Wardi, Vol. 1, 21]
After the Prophet(sawa)’s death, they neglected the washing and shrouding of the Prophet choosing instead to go to Saqifah and fight over the Caliphate.
During his Caliphate, Abu Bakr usurped the property of Sayyeda Fatima(sawa) and angered her, along with Umar he surrounded the House of Fatima(sa) and threatened to burn it down (in order to force the occupants to give bayah). He killed those Muslims who withheld the payment of Zakat (even though it is not lawful to kill a Muslim). They prevented the writing of the Prophet’s sunna and collected and burnt the traditions of the Prophet(sawa).
They usurped Imam Ali(as)’s right when they were fully aware that the Prophet(sawa) had designated Imam Ali as his successor on many occasions.
The Messenger of Allah said to Ali: “Your position to me is like the position of Aaron (Haroon) to Moses, except that there shall be no Prophet after me”
Sunni References: Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Traditions 5.56, 5.700, Sahih Muslim, Arabic, v4, pp 1870-71, Sunan Ibn Majah, p12, Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p174, al-Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, pp 15-16
While returning from his last Haj, in Ghadir-e-Khum, when the Prophet (sawa) held up the hand of Ali and said: “Whoever I am his leader (Mawla), Ali is his leader (Mawla). O’ God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him.”
Some of the Sunni references: Sahih Tirmidhi, v2, p298, v5, p63, Sunan Ibn Maja, v1, pp 12,43, Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, pp 4,21, al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p129, v3, pp 109-110,116,371 ,Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 84,118,119,152,330, v4, pp 281,368,370,372,378, v5, pp 35,347,358,361,366,419 (from 40 chains of narrators), Fada’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, pp 563,572
The incident of Dawat-e-Zulashira (when the Prophet declared his prophethood openly for the first time), he said about Ali(as) “This is my brother, my executor (Wasi), my successor (Caliph) among you, so listen to him and obey him.”
Sunni References: History of al-Tabari, English version, v6, pp 88-91, History of Ibn Athir, v2, p62, History of Ibn Asakir, v1, p85, Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v5, p97 ,Tafsir al-Khazin, by Ala’uddin al-Shafi’i, v3, p371
Imam Ali (as) said about the Caliphate: “By Allah! Ibn Abi Quhafa(Abu Bakr) has dressed himself [with the Caliphate]! Yet he knows that my position to it is like that of a pole in relation to the hand mill! The current flows from me and [even] birds cannot aspire to my heights. I put a curtain against the Caliphate and detached myself from it. I began to think whether I should fight [for my rights] with a fettered hand (i.e. unsupported) or endure the blinding darkness of tribulations wherein the old would become feeble, the young would become old, and a believer would strive until he met his Lord. I perceived being that patience was the wiser course for me. I adopted patience although there was prickling in the eye and suffocation in the throat. “ (Khutba Shiqshiqiyah- Nahjul Balagha).
The Ahlulbayt(as) are the standard:
The Prophet (sawa) said: “O’ people! Behold! It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. Behold! I am leaving for you two precious things. First of them is the book of Allah in which there is light and guidance… The other one is my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you in the name of Allah about my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you in the name of Allah about my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you in the name of Allah about my Ahlul-Bayt. (three times).”
Sunni Reference: Sahih Muslim, Chapter of the virtues of the companions, section of the virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1873, Tradition #36,Sahih al-Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad
Prophet (sawa) stated:
“Behold! My Ahlulbayt are like the Ark of Noah. Whoever embarked in it was saved, and whoever turned away from it was perished.”
Sunni references: al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p343, v3, pp 150-151 on the authority of Abu Dhar. al-Hakim said this tradition is authentic (Sahih), Fadha’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p786
The Ahlulbayt(as) are the standard not the companions. They have been purified by Allah(swt) from all sins and the Prophet(sawa) has commanded us to follow them.
The Prophet (sawa) said about Ahlul-Bayt:
“Do not be ahead of them for you will perish, do not turn away from them for you will perish, and do not try to teach them since they know more than you do!”
(Sunni Ref: al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v2, p60, al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p230, quoted from al-Tabarani, also in section 2, p342 Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v3, p137)